1. Reducing time spent at work – The idea here is to motivate people to work by getting them off the job. The truth is that motivated people seek more hours, not
2. Spiraling Wages – Spiraling wages motivates people to seek the next wage increase. If rising wages won’t motivate, reducing them might.
3. Fringe Benefits – These benefits have gone from rewards to rights. The cost of fringe benefits is approximately 25% of the wage dollar. People are spending less time working expecting more security and money. Fringe benefits do not motivate.
4. Human Relations Training – More than 30 years of teaching and training and the question is still the same: How do you motivate employees?
5. Sensitivity Training – Because of the failure of Human Relations Training, sensitivity training was developed. Many employees were forced to get to know themselves better and no motivation was garnered.
6. Communications – This was the next management training program to instill motivation. The idea was to let employees understand what management was trying to do for them. But communication didn’t lead to motivation, it only lead to management realizing that it was not listening to employees.
7. Two Way Communication – Management now began welcoming suggestions and surveys. The two-way communication brought some improvement, but still had no motivating effect.
8. Job Participation – Job participation was designed to give employees the sense of achievement, or to show the employee the big picture. This, of course, doesn’t lead to motivation.
9. Employee Counseling – Employees could talk to someone about their problems and perhaps that would motivate them. But the counseling also failed to yield the desired results. In fact, counseling services were often interfering with the operation of the organization itself.
The motivation-hygiene theory proposes that work must be enriched to successfully utilize, or motivate, personnel. Job enrichment provides the opportunity for growth. Job enrichment must be vertical job loading and not horizontal job loading. Horizontal loading consists of challenging the employee to increase production amounts or adding another meaningless task to the existing one. Vertical job loading could be removing controls while keeping accountability and introducing new and more challenging tasks not previously handled. Job enrichment needs to be a continuous management function according to Herzberg.
Herzberg disputes the ideas shared by managers that money and benefits motivate employees. Instead, Herzberg believes continuous job enrichment will motivate employees. He provides ten steps at the end of the article that managers should follow to implement his motivation-hygiene theory.
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