involves using what a company already has in their possession to try and make
something new. This is less costly than if companies went outside the company to create something brand new.
Kludging is a form of tinkering but just on a larger scale. Kludging involves more parts that are needed to create the change and often times kludging can result in a new division for a company or a whole new business.
Pacing involves making changes at the right time. If a company has not made any recent changes, then they will need to make rapid changes to catch up. But a company that has been making many changes will need to slow down from their rapid changes to tinkering and kludging.